Volume 10 Issue 1 February 2014

| September 21, 2014

Volume 10 Issue 1 February 2014

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Foreword. Dr. Paul Robertson and Dr. Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh

  1. The Investigation of the Effects of EFL Teachers’ Constructive Feedback-Based Journal Writing (Log) on Developing Teaching Styles. Gholamreza Abbasian, Delaram Pourmandnia and Behnam Behfrouz”. Teachers’ answers to such major questions as ‘who am I?’, ‘what kind of teacher do I want to be?’, and ‘how do I see my role as a teacher?’ (Korthagen, 2004), growing over career stages and in light of educational, cultural, and political contexts (Flores and Day, 2006). Furthermore, teaching styles, strategies, and affectivity build up it. However, these issues have rarely been accommodated integratedly, which motivated this study to address them through lengthy journal writing stages each followed by professional constructive feedback. To do so, a sample of twenty two Iranian MA EFL teachers attempted Lowmans’ TSI (1995), prior to and after the experiment run through guided journal writings during a ten-session course. Each journal was analyzed based on the PPP approach and necessary constructive feedback was explicitly given in written. The data analyzed based on mixed research paradigms revealed promising results and proved the feasibility of the PID. Parametric statistical analyses revealed moderate effects of the given feedback on the PID, but significant effects on the styles.Meanwhile, significant effects were explored on the nature of the relationship among some variables such that teaching styles was affected significantly. Also significant effects were experienced on the nature of the tripartite subcomponents of PI; Subject matter, didactical, and pedagogical fields. Qualitatively, a remarkable trend of developments in all three PPPs indicated a trend of shift from teacher-centeredness to learner autonomy and strategic teaching.
  2. {slider Unaccusativity in English and Persian: A Contrastive Analysis. Ali Akbar Ariamanesh and Mohammad Javad Rezai|closed}Unaccusativity along with its related concepts falls at the heart of anti-causation (Levin & Rappaport Hovav, 1995; Perlmutter, 1978; White, 2003). When focusing on the premise, there is permanent shifting between semantics and syntax, as well as between deep and surface structure. The appropriate use of unaccusative structures can be crucial when the intention by a sentence and its interpretation are both affected by the type of sentence structure. The present study aims to shed some insightful light on the concept of unaccusativity in English and Persian. To this end, a detailed descriptive survey enriched by a number of examples is elaborated in this paper.{/sliders}
  1. {slider EFL Teachers’ Attitudes towards Their Writing Abilities: Their Impact on Writing Instruction. Masoud Zoghi and Fereshteh Asadzadian|closed}This study aimed at investigating Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions of their own writing abilities and the degree to which it affects their teaching of writing to their students. To this end, 12 EFL teachers who were teaching adults at the elementary level of a girls’ language institute participated in this study. Data were collected through two self-assessment questionnaires regarding their perceptions towards their English and Persian writing abilities. To measure the degree to which they emphasized writing practices in actual classroom settings, their classes were also observed. Results show that the tested group has generally positive attitudes towards their writing abilities which is probably conducive to the frequent application of writing activities in their classrooms. Discussion on the findings and suggestions for further studies are dealt with accordingly.{/sliders}
  2. {slider A Critical Study around the Contribution and Significance of Culture Component in Iranian EAP and EFL Contexts. Fatemeh Bagheri|closed}Second or foreign language instruction and learning has a long history in the educational system of countries. In the present study, the focus is on Iran’s status in presenting English books for academic purposes and the way the culture factor involves in EAP context. To better clarify the problem, the researcher presents the research statement as the following lines; regarding the works of language policymakers in compiling English books in Iran, a critical study will be presented around the contribution and significance of culture component in EAP, and EFL contexts. The present study would be a critical discourse analysis in the framework of cultural factors.{/sliders}
  3. {slider The Effect of CALL Program on Expanding Lexical Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. Leila Babapour Azam|closed}This study was designed to explore the effects of CALL program on expanding lexical knowledge of Iranian EFL intermediate learners: (a) effect of CALL program on the long-term retention in vocabulary learning, and (b) impact of this program on contextualized vocabulary learning. The study was conducted with 40 learners studying in Marefat English Language Institute in Miandoab city. From the participants, those who had access to personal computer at home were selected as the experimental group and the others served as the control group. They were called CALL group and non-CALL group respectively. Although teachers’ instructional approach and the material were the same for both groups at class, the experimental group exploited computerized facilities at home to find meanings and definitions of newly taught words, but the control group used desktop dictionaries and made a bilingual list of new words to memorize them. To measure two groups’ long-term retention of new lexical items, three tests were administered. Based on the mean scores and standard deviations of the groups, CALL group had an intensive mental processing which resulted in long-term recall of words. An independent samples t-test was run to compare the participants’ performances on contextualized vocabulary learning. Similarly, CALL group produced better results than non-CALL group. Teachers can integrate CALL in their teaching to improve learners’ lexical knowledge and give them more autonomy in language learning.{/sliders}
  4. {slider Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Learners’ Beliefs toward FLL: A Case Study of Undergraduate EFL Learners at Sheikhbahaee University. Reza Dehghan Harati|closed}The main purpose of this study was investigating the foreign language classroom anxiety and beliefs of undergraduate EFL learners at SheikhbahaeeUniversity. In this study, 30 linguistically homogenous female students were selected and asked to complete the Persian versions of Horwitz’ BALLI and FLCAS. The findings revealed that learners had different beliefs toward learning English as a foreign language and the mean of their level of anxiety turned out to be 86.13 out of 165 with the standard deviation of 22.86. This suggests the lower level of anxiety but higher standard deviation compared to other previously conducted studies. The results revealed that from among the six extracted BALLI factors, just one factor was found to be significantly correlated with foreign language anxiety. This factor including 5 BALLI items was labeled as self efficacy / confidence. The significant and negative correlation between this factor and level of anxiety shows that low self efficacy and lack of confidence may be a more noticeable source of anxiety.{/sliders}
  5. {slider Iranian University Students’ Level of Language Classroom Anxiety and its Relationship to Age, Gender and Discipline Variables.  Javid Elyasi|closed}This study aimed to explore Iranian university students’ Level of Language Classroom Anxiety. The effect of three important learner variables, i.e., age, discipline and gender, on students’ language classroom anxiety was also investigated. Participants were 144 male and female university students with the age range of 18-32 from four different faculties at GilanUniversity, Rasht, Iran. These participants were asked to respond to Horwitz et al. (1986), Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. The university students’ scores on FLCAS were formed to be distributed normally. Quite a high variability in students’ anxiety level was found. 13.8 % of the students were considered as highly anxious students. About 73.6 % of the students were considered as averagely anxious students and 12.5 % of the students experienced low foreign language classroom anxiety. Regarding background variables, no significant difference was found in participants’ level of foreign language classroom anxiety with regard to age, gender and discipline. Regarding discipline variable, a difference was found in favor of engineering student subscale at p=.06 which was close to significant level p < .05. This finding needs to be investigated in further studies.{/sliders}
  6. {slider Angela’s Ashes: Class Struggle and the Dream of Betterment. Hamid Farahmandian|closed}This paper aims to analyze ‘Angela’s Ashes’ to illustrate the class struggle and its effects on the society and characters. ‘Angela’s Ashes’ is an Irish novel authored by Frank McCourt which is totally an autobiographical novel. It shows the financial and social troubles the McCourt suffer in both the United States and their homeland, Ireland. In order to understand the title of this paper and its aims, some aspects of Marxism theory which is the main theory for this paper will be applied covertly to accomplish. This philosophy significantly focuses on economic issues and class issues among the members of a society. Moreover, this novel basically as a biographical work speaks about the class struggle and the dream of migrating United States – which the main character of this novel pursues in his puberty. This paper will examine the issues of ‘Alienation’, ‘Religion’ and ‘Revolution’ based on oppression which plays a significant role in these three issues throughout the novel. These factors will be scrutinized based on Marxism basics carefully. In the end we will come to this conclusion that Frank leave Ireland to the United States because alienation caused in Ireland due to oppression and religion on its head which leads to an revolution in his inside regarding his future life based on the experience from his past and family troubles suffered during the first nineteen yours. This analysis have been partially overlooked in the researches of scholars; even though, other various definitions or theories related to Marxism like sociology or psychoanalysis have been applied for this novel.{/sliders}
  7. {slider Source Text Analysis and Translating Ideology: Investigating “Sexism” in Sidney Sheldon’s “The Stars Shine Down”. Nadia Ghazanfari Moghaddam, Azadeh Sharifi Moghaddam and Masoud Sharififar|closed}A proper source text analysis is one of the first steps to a qualified translation. At the surface level of texts, analysis is performed with lesser complexities and challenges than at the deep level or the discourse. One of the most common challenges in translation practice is transmitting different types of ideologies imbedded in texts. For the purpose of this study “sexism” was centered for source text analysis; and a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) model for sexism detection, which was primarily proposed and applied on Persian context, was applied on an English novel: Sidney Sheldon’s “The Stars Shine Down”. The results revealed that the derived CDA model was, in general, applicable on an English context, yet differences were also observed as the verbal and non-verbal behavior codes of the two cultures were assigned to the individuals somewhat differently. Although this study focused on gender bias but it offers some solutions and suggestion for further detections of other types of ideologies in texts and optimally facilitates their transmission via a proper translation practice. This study also can contribute to investigations on “sexism” in Linguistics and Cultural Studies.{/sliders}
  8. {slider The Representation of Social Actors in Bahrain Conflicts: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Stories in International Press. Javad Hayatdavoudi and Zahra Amirian|closed}The present study aims to investigate the representation of two main parties of social actors in Bahrain conflicts as reported in English-language press in four international newspapers. In this regard, Tehran Times, Arab News, The Daily Telegraph and Washington Post were selected as conservative-leaning newspapers representing different socio-political ideologies. A corpus of news articles on Bahrain uprising as reported in these newspapers were collected, which bore similar themes and represented similar parties of social actors. A number of 8 news articles, two from each newspaper, were selected as the samples and underwent systematic macro- and microstructural analysis. The macrostructure of the texts were analyzed using Lacanian concept of master-signifiers (1969-70) and Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory (1985). The microstructure of the texts was accounted for in terms of Van Leeuwen’s sociosemantic inventory (1996) and Hallidy’s transitivity system (1985). The results showed that the texts, at their macrostructure, invariably harbored dominant modern political ideologies prevalent in the Middle East. The ideologies were also manifested in the microstructure of the articles through particular linguistic codes. The results of statistical analysis showed variable frequencies in the use of two major sociosemantic categories – inclusion vs. exclusion – and their subcategories among different newspapers. The results of inferential statistics revealed significant differences in the use of exclusion and its subcategories among the select newspapers and a significant difference in the use of inclusion and its subcategories within every newspaper.{/sliders}
  9. {slider Discourse of War in English & Persian: A CDA Cognitive-Metaphoric Approach. Maryam Hesabi Dehbaneh and Zahra Hesabi Dehbaneh|closed}War and the ideology behind are mostly yielded up by metaphor that is to hide a part of something to highlight another part. Since the main concern of critical discourse analysis is to seek for social justice, the significance of war discourse is to reveal the ways in which discourse and ideology are related. The context within which the research is carried out is CDA and cognitive-metaphoric as well as discourse of war. News and commentaries from two international newspapers (Keyhan and The Guardian) on Middle East war are contrasted to describe the significant linguistic elements or common strategies as well as to see the how of manipulating these linguistic mechanisms to serve the ideologies of the writers. The Persian news excerpts are all transcribed in IPA. This qualitative corpus-based study affirms the way ‘language’ is triggered to hide the given selective parts to defend a piece of ideology.{/sliders}
  10. {slider Iranian Pre-university Students’ Beliefs toward Their Use of English Vocabulary Learning Strategies. Fateme Jahedi Esfanjani and Parisa Salamzadeh|closed}No linguist today would seriously contest the fact that, quantitatively, vocabulary dominates in the language field and that vocabulary acquisition is the main obstacle to language acquisition. One cannot speak, understand, read or write a foreign language without knowing a lot of words. Vocabulary is central to language and of critical importance to the typical language learner. Regarding these points, this study aimed to explore, to what extent Iranian pre-university students use metacognitive, cognitive, social, and affective vocabulary learning strategies. Also, which vocabulary learning strategies (mvls, cvls, svls,a vls) has the highest and lowest use among Iranian pre-university students. To conduct the study, a total of 100 pre-university students in Mobtakeran high-school participated in this study. Vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire was administrated to the participants. The collected data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics: mean and standard deviation. The results of the data analysis showed that: Among the four categories investigated, affective strategies were the most frequently used strategy, followed by cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies and social strategies. Finally, the present study provided some implications for English vocabulary learning and teaching strategies which can be used in Iranian schools.{/sliders}
  11. {slider The Effects of Communicative Task-Based Language Instruction on the Comprehension of the ESL Learners in Iran. Navisa Lesani|closed}This paper reviews the influence of the communicative tasks on curriculum development and summarizes the research base for task-based language teaching. In recent years, many teachers have been looking for ways to change the traditional forms of instruction. The theoretical basis of TBLL is that language is for communication. Implementing a TBL approach enhances the students’ learning.Tasks can be easily related to students’ real-life language needs. It emphasizes meaning over form. There is a relationship between creative thinking and classroom tasks used in communicative approaches to language learning. This paper focuses mainly on the advantages of using a TBL approach and evaluates the effectiveness of it within the given context. The teacher’s role is to devise activities that develop ability to communicate gradually and use small group work. I shall review the development of task-based language teaching (TBLT). This approach shifted the focus of language learning from knowledge of language to a focus on its use to achieve communicative purposes. If we read something without understanding it, we can’t call this kind of reading as an “efficient reading”. Both comprehension and speed are significant in reading. Reading comprehension is a significant ability for students because of the different texts that they are supposed to read in Task-Based language learning classes. One of the most challenging tasks constantly facing languageteachers is how to capture the interest of their students to be more motivated to learn.{/sliders}
  12. {slider Assessing Metacognitive Awareness and Learning strategies as Positive Predictors in Promoting L2 Learners’ Reading Comprehension. Farahman Farrokhi and Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi Motlagh.|closed}The purpose of this paper was to investigate how differently metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies affect L2 learners’ reading comprehension. To this end, the study employed a quasi-experimental design with a placement test as a proficiency test to find the homogeneity of groups. Each group received one main strategy and then, according to Oxford (1990) training model, the researcher taught and employed those strategies in reading comprehension texts. Learners’ improvement was measured during the six sessions of teaching and employing those strategies in responding to reading questions. One-way ANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated that metacognitive group significantly outperformed the other groups and, so metacognitive strategies are more effective in promoting L2 learners’ reading comprehension.{/sliders}
  13. {slider Iranian EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of Traditional, Innovative and Modern Teaching Approaches: GTM, Communicative and Task- Based Approaches in Focus. Parisa Riahipour, Saeed Ketabi and Azizollah Dabbaghi|closed}Revolutions occurring in the ‘global village’ demand language teachers to equip themselves with professional developments. Since Teachers’ cognition as well as methodological ones plays a detrimental role in their failure or success in the teaching process, a deep insight into teachers’ perceptions and beliefs would be of great significance. This study is an attempt to view Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions on three major teaching approaches; grammar translation, communicative and task based. The ultimate goal is to observe which approach/es Iranian EFL teachers commonly adopt in their teaching procedures and is there any consistency between what they perceive and what they practically focus in their teaching programs. To do so, ten prominent teachers possessing particular criteria were selected. The obtained results through a questionnaire and an interview question revealed Iranian EFL teachers’ tendency to manipulate a mixture of all these approaches particularly GTM in academic contexts. However, apparently they mostly claimed to rely on task based and communicative approaches in their teaching procedures. This lack of consistency demands further clarification.{/sliders}
  14. {slider Teaching Phrasal Verbs: A Fresh View from Cognitive Linguistics. Elham Sadri and Mohammad Reza Talebinejad|closed}Phrasal verbs are quite common in today’s spoken and written English and new ones are constantly being created. However, they do not enjoy a good reputation in EFL learning and teaching and are one of the notoriously difficult parts of the English lexicon because the meaning of many of the phrasal verbs does not appear to be the sum of their components; therefore, it is wrongly believed that the only way to learn them is through memorization. This study proposes that the thriving field of Cognitive Linguistics could be beneficial for teaching phrasal verbs in a non-arbitrary, meaningful way. Sixty intermediate learners were randomly assigned to two equal control and experimental groups. Forty phrasal verbs with the most common particles (up, down, in, out, on, off, away, and over) were instructed to experimental groups using the insights gleaned from Cognitive Linguistics. The control group received the same phrasal verbs through dictionary definitions and single verb equivalents. Statistical analysis of a pre/posttest assessment confirmed the superiority of the CL-based approach and revealed a strategy transfer to unrehearsed phrasal verbs as well.{/sliders}
  15. {slider The Relationship between willingness to communicate outside the classroom and ideal L2 self. Abbas Moradan and Omid Salavati|closed}Willingness to Communicate is considered as the ultimate goal of instruction. It is an important affective factor in learning as well. For that, motivation is also of importance in any learning situation. One of the well-known reconceptualization models of motivation is L2 Motivational Self System proposed by Dörnyei which consists of 3 components. This paper investigates the relationship between willingness to communicate outside the classroom and ideal L2 self which is one of the L2 Motivational Self System components. For the purpose of this study, 60 female EFL students at Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Iran, were selected. Questionnaires including WTC outside the classroom and ideal L2 self questions were administered. The results showed a significant relationship between these two affective variables. Moreover, results showed a high degree of ideal L2 self among the learners.{/sliders}
  16. {slider A Contrastive Study of the Rhetorical Properties of Geography and Environmental Planning Research Articles’ Introductions across English and Persian. Simin Sattarpour|closed}This study presents an analysis of the rhetorical patterns of introductory sections of 20 Geography and Environmental Planning research articles (RAs) in English and Persian language. The aim behind this analysis was to see if there are any similarities or differences in RA introductions written by authors from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds within the same discipline. The two sets of RA introductions were compared in terms of Swalesian moves, voice, tense, and modality. Unlike Persian RA introductions, it was found that English ones conform to Swales model. It appeared that in Persian introductions Move1 (Establishing the Territory) and Move3 (Occupying the Niche) are obligatory, while Move2 (Establishing the Niche) is optional. Moreover, the occurrence of cyclicity makes English introductions more complex. There is a striking similarity in terms of the high proportion of active voice and simple present tense, and rare use of modals in English and Persian introductions which may show writers’ certainty in presenting facts. This phenomenon could be attributed to the features of discipline community that authors are members of it.{/sliders}
  17. {slider Translation of Culture-Bound Elements of English Literary Texts into Persian: A Case Study on J. D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye. Zohreh Eslami and Hassan Shahabi|closed}This paper was an attempt to investigate the applied strategies for translating culture-bound elements in the two Persian renderings of Catcher in the rye. In this study, Catcher in the rye and its two Persian translations were compared with each other. All the culture-bound elements and expressions were identified after comparing the two renderings and the applied strategies were found. The models proposed by Vinay&Darbelent (2001), Baker (1992), and Newmark (1988)to recognize the strategieswere chosen.The findings of the study reveal that there are different strategies used for the transference of cultural terms. It also shows that ‘borrowing’ strategy turn out to be the most frequent one with a frequency application of around 30.2%. However, it seems that Karimi has been more successful in rendering the intended meaning of culture-bound elements.{/sliders}
  18. {slider The Correlational Analysis between Speaking and Listening, Reading and Writing, and Reading and Speaking Mean Band IELTS Scores Achieved by 2011 from the Top 41 Countries (Academic). Goodarz Shakibaei and Shahla Keivan|closed}The present study is an attempt to investigate the correlational analysis between speaking and listening, reading and writing, and speaking and reading mean band IELTS Scores achieved by 2011from the top 41 countries (Academic). The four basic skills are related to each other by two parameters: 1.The mode of communication: oral or written 2.The direction of communication: receiving or producing. On the basis of this classification, writing and speaking are classified as productive and listening and reading as receptive skills. The participants of this study were from forty one most frequent countries or regions of origin in which IELTS test is held. All the participants took the academic training International Language Testing System (IELTS). The mean band scores of all participants in these countries in 2011 were used as the data in this study.The data of all participants obtained from WWW.IELTS.org which is jointly owned organization of British Council, IPD: IELTS Australia and University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. The participants’ performance on IELTS from speakers of other language was obtained. English was second or foreign for these participants. Four basic language skills mean band scores were downloaded and used as the data in this study. Correlational analysis shows that there are significant correlations between speaking and listening, writing and reading, and reading and speaking.Since these four skills have effects on each other and they are complementary, they should be taught together and in a close relationship.{/sliders}
  19. {slider Exploring Learners’ Social and Cultural Identification Opportunities in EFL Textbooks Developed by Western and Iranian Authors. Davud Kuhi, Ali Sorayyaei Azar and Nazanin Shafiee|closed}Textbooks can become a strong and influential instrument for the representation of the cultural values of the context where they are produced and equally for the construction of the identity of the learner community addressed by them. This inherent feature can become a source of conflict and struggle when textbooks used in foreign language education in a single context are developed with culturally different approaches. Iran represents such a case: state-run schools are emphasizing the use of home-made textbooks, whereas private institutes utilize textbooks produced in cultural West. To demonstrate how these ready-made packages of identity construction can differ in terms of the values presented, the cultural and social identifications embedded in two series of contemporary English textbooks one series from Iran(Iranian state-run high school textbooks) and one series from cultural West (Top Notch textbook) –were examined. Content analysis was employed as the research methodology to determine cultural and social representations in reading passages and picture illustrations. Amongst the findings of the study, we found that the social cultural identity indices represented in Top Notch series were much more diverse than those in Iranian textbooks which might be interpreted in the light of the fact that Top Notch series were designed to respond to the needs of much more diverse cultural backgrounds of its potential learner communities. In fact, Top Notch series depicted an integration of content with diverse cultural backgrounds of target EFL students, while in the Iranian textbooks we found less content about others (which included cultural values, beliefs, and customs), no content about products and more content about discoveries, events, and engineering accomplishments. The Iranian series had more content about NPLS (natural phenomena and living surroundings) and LLPS (language, literacy, proverbs, and sayings) and less content about PNE (people/national identity/ethnicity).{/sliders}
  20. {slider Exploring the Washback Effect of the University Entrance Exam on Language Teaching Activities in High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory. Farideh Samadi and Seyed Ali Ostovar Namaghi|closed}The purpose of this study was to investigate how English teachers in senior high schools perceived the effect of the University Entrance Exam (UEE) on their teaching activities. To this end, the researcher posed a research question to four experienced English teachers for exploration, “How does the UEE shape the teaching activities?” The researcher used the Grounded Theory Methodology in order to fulfill the purposes of this study. Data were collected by open ended interviews and analysed in accordance with the grounded theory methodology. The rigorous coding schemes of the grounded theory method yielded a set of categories – “The Teachers’ Perceptions of Washback Effect of the UEE on their Teaching Activities” as the core category and four subcategories including “UEE Makes Teachers Teach to the Test”, “UEE Makes Teachers Teach Previous Tests”, “UEE Shapes the Way Teachers Prioritize Skills”, and “UEE Makes Stakeholders Intervene in Teaching Activities” to capture the teachers’ perspectives on washback effect of the University Entrance Exam on senior high school English teachers’ activities. Based on the results, almost all the teachers perceived the negative effect of the UEE similarly. The implication is that potentially influential factors such as teachers’ experience and educational background play a neutral role in adopting effective teaching techniques due to the wash back phenomenon. Thus, if the UEE is not reformed to encourage English teachers to teach communicatively, spending millions of Rials on training and improving their level of knowledge at teacher training colleges and universities would be a great loss.{/sliders}
  21. {slider Language Learning Strategy Use and Its Correlation with EFL Male and Female Learners. Fazl Ahmad Ghanbarzehi|closed}So far, the relevant research has been carried out by second language acquisition scholars as well as cognitive psychologists to reveal the importance of the language learning strategy (LLS) for the language learning, as well as positive educational outcomes. This study proposed to explore the LLS used by learners of English as a foreign language, intended to find the frequency of strategies and the domain disparities of the strategies used; and also to find out correlation of strategy use with learners’ gender and its effects on their success on learning English language. To do this, 40 (20 male, 20 female) ELT department undergraduate students at Eastern Mediterranean University were chosen as participantsand Oxford’s (1990) strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) was administrated. Collected data were analyzed through SPSS (17.0) to find the language learning strategies frequency use and its relationship with gender variable. The findings revealed that female learners apply more LLSs than their male peers and that metacognitive strategies are favored the most both by male and female students.Moreover, there is a significant correlation between affective and memory strategies.{/sliders}
  22. {slider Story Retelling and the EFL Vocabulary Learning Process. Mohammad Reza Ghorbani|closed}Story retelling has been claimed to be an effective instructional strategy in English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL) classes. However, since it is generally deemed to be time-consuming and difficult, it has not been widespread in EFL/ESL classes. This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of EFL learners’ story retelling on their vocabulary learning in Iran. Quasi-experimental design was used to study 67 Iranian intermediate undergraduate EFL learners who participated in this study. Of these, 36 subjects were female and 31 were male. Experiments were carried out with two classes of non-English major students who were assigned different tasks. Scores of the vocabulary tests were collected before and after the treatment. The reliability of the test was estimated at 0.80 through KR-21 formula. An independent samples t-test was used to compare the possible differences between the means of the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study confirm the effectiveness of story retelling, which implies that if teachers apply this technique and provide their students with such opportunities, their vocabulary learning process is reinforced and facilitated. One of the main problems with vocabulary learning is that it is here today, gone tomorrow. In this study, story retelling proved to be a practical technique for classroom use regarding vocabulary learning. EFL teachers and learners will benefit from the results of this study. In this method, language is used as means to an end, that is, the focus is on stories, but students learn new words subconsciously.{/sliders}
  23. {slider The effect of Constructivist-Based Teaching Approach on Iranian intermediate EFL Learners’ Academic Achievement and Attitude. Fereidoon Vahdany and Fataneh Samadi Sayyad|closed}In Iranian classroom situation, teachers often disseminate knowledge and expect students to rely heavily on textbooks which structurally discourage cooperation and make students work in relative isolation on tasks. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of constructivist-based teaching approach on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ academic achievement and their attitudes towards English. Quasi-experimental research design was used to achieve the purpose of this study. The 52 senior high school students in two intact classes were served as the participants who had studied English as a part of their official school curriculums at Shayestegan non-profit high school in Bandar-Anzali. The experimental group was taught using the constructivist approach while the control group was taught using the traditional approach. This study was conducted during a period of four months of the academic year. As far as the research method is concerned, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are adopted. The collected data included pre-test, monthly quizzes and posttest scores and responses to 25-item questionnaires for assessing the students’ attitude towards selected approaches of teaching. T-test was used to test quantitative hypothesis. Results of the statistical analyses indicated that constructivist class had higher average on the monthly quizzes scores. Results of the questionnaire also demonstrated that the constructivist group had a better outlook and higher level of satisfaction on foreign language learning at the end of the semester than the students in the traditional group. Also it showed that students in constructivist group have higher preference for communicative activities.{/sliders}
  24. {slider The Relationship of Academic Self-esteem, Academic Self-efficacy and Academic self-concept to Academic Achievement among Iranian EFL University Students.Jahanbakhsh Langroudi, Nasibeh Amiri and Mahboubeh Akbarzadeh|closed}The present study is an attempt to explore any significant relationships between Academic Self-esteem, Academic Self-efficacy, and Academic Self-concept to Academic Achievement. Fifty Iranian EFL students studying at the department of foreign languages of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman took part in this study. In order to obtain the required data, three questionnaires were utilized: the Academic Self-esteem Scale (ASES) to measure students’ self-esteem, Academic Self-efficacy Scale (CASES) to measure students’ self-efficacy, and Academic Self-concept Scale (ASCS) to determine the level of students’ self-concept. The findings of this study revealed that first, there was a significant positive relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic achievement; second, there was a significant positive relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement; third, there was no relationship between academic self-esteem and academic achievement. Thus, two of the variables (CASES & ASCS) are significant predictors of GPA for university students (CASES:alfa= .93and ASCS:alfa= .86); whereas, ASES is not a good and reliable predictor of GPA(Alpha =.77).{/sliders}
  25. {slider Extensive Recast and Delayed Explicit Feedback and their Effects on the Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Accuracy through Oral Reproduction.Mohammad Hassan Chehrazad and Farahman Farrokhi|closed}The focus of the study was to find out which of the focus on form techniques or corrective feedback types can effectively lead to the development of theEFL learners’ oral accuracy. To this end, the study employed a quasi experimental design. Three intact classes were randomly selected as the control group, extensive recast group, and delayed explicit and metalinguistic feedback group. All groups participated in six sessions of the story retelling task. For all groups, learners were asked to read and summarize their own assigned story and retell it to the class.Participants of the control group did not receive any CF;Participants of the extensive recast group were provided with recasts on the all grammatical errors they made during thestory retelling task; Participants of the delayed explicit and metalinguistic group, were provided with explicit and metalinguistic feedback on their simple past tense errors and after they finished the retelling; Learners’ improvement was measured by their oral accuracy during the six sessions of story retelling. One-way ANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated that the delayed explicit and metalinguistic group outperformed both the control group and the extensive recast group in the session six of oral reproduction and that there was no significant difference between the extensive recast and the control groups’ effects on the development of the participants’ oral accuracy. It can also be suggested that delayed explicit and metalinguistic feedback is much more effective than extensive recasts for the development of the EFL learners’ oral accuracy.{/sliders}
  26. {slider Teaching ESL to the “Neglected” Adult Learner:  The Case for Andragogy. Fariba Hooshyar|closed}The growth of adult population and the fact that we spend about 70 percent of our lives as adults as well as the fact that more than one billion people around the globe are learning English reveal the importance of adult SLA (second language acquisition) and TESL (teaching English as a second language) research. Knowles pioneered in recognizing the need for a theory of adult education and developed his theory of Andragogy in 1968. By the same token, Perry proposed his Intellectual Development Theory and Mcclusky, attending adult’s life constraints, suggested his Power Load Margin theory. TESL and SLA scholars have not taken these theories into due consideration, though. This paper gives an account of the above mentioned theories and discusses their implications in TESL. Accordingly, I propose the Practicality-Oriented Model and the use of a Factor-Analysis table in an attempt to create insightful and practical TESL methodology and curriculum.{/sliders}
  27. {slider The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Listening Comprehension Skill among Intermediate EFL Learners in Iran. Farzin Fahimniya and Fatemeh Khoddamy Pour|closed}Nearly till the last century, nobody believed emotions could affect scientific achievements. Since then scientists gradually started introducing Emotional Intelligence (EI) to the world. The present research has put the hypothetical relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and listening comprehension skill to the test. At the beginning, intermediate English learners took part in the “New Opportunities” placement test (2005) and then the chosen students first took Schutte (2001) emotional intelligence test and next they took a Longman TOEFL listening test (2001). The researchers divided the students into two groups, Students who had a high level of EI and those who had a low level of EI. The other step was to see if students’ level of EI was correlated with their listening comprehension skill. To this end, Chi-square formula was used and the result showed that EI and listening test scores were positively correlated. Finally ,T- test was applied to compare means of the two groups in the listening test and the result indicated that the students with a high level of EI out performed the students with a low level of EI.{/sliders}
  28. {slider Translation of Proper Names: A Study of the Holy Qur’an. Habibollah Mashhady and Masoumeh Yazdani Moghadam|closed}Qur’an is a religious text which its translation needs great care and attention on the side of translators. Thus, to produce an accurate, natural and consistent translation of it, it is necessary to take its semantic, syntactic, pragmatic and phonetic features into account. Qur’an has been translated by many translatorsboth native and nonnative speakers andfrom different ideologies (Arberry, Irving, Qaraei, Safarzadeh, YusofAli, Mohammad and SamiraAhmad) and in different languages. The present study is an attempt to investigate translation of proper names in these six English translationsrelated tosecond Chapter (Surah) of the Holy Qur’an. The findings clearly indicated that translators’ ideology does not affect translation procedures applied by the translators; namely, Arberry and Irving,as native speakers of English sharing Christian background used translation procedure in most cases.YusofAli, Mohammad and SamiraAhmad, as native speakers of Arabic language,adopting Sunni ideologywho applied translation with most frequency while Safarzadeh, as a Persian native speaker, and having a Shia background rendered transference (transcription/transliteration) with the highest frequency.Although Qaraei has the same background and ideology as Safarzadeh, employed the same translation strategy as the previous four translators.{/sliders}

Category: 2014