Volume 10 Issue 3 June 2014

| September 21, 2014

Volume 10 Issue 3 June 2014

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Foreword: Dr. Paul Robertson and Dr. Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh

  1. {slider English-language-learning attitudinal Impact on the Development of Expressive Speech Act and Addressee Honorifics in Iranian EFL Settings. Nader Assadi Aidinlou, Mahnaz Rnjbar and Somayyeh Ranjbar|closed}The hypothesis that widespread interest in speech act competence is a prerequisite for language acquisitionwas, in general, the underlying motive for the present investigation. Thus, the current study tackles the communication-specific pragmatics and attitudes of the EFL learners associated with speech act and addressee honorifics. To this aim, the sketched-out instrumentations, i.e, four self-designed questionnaires, were administered to two groups of participants (N=200). Broadly viewed, taking the individual variables of the EFL learners into account, the attitudes the learners hold toward learning English language, in light of their age, employment position, formal academic proficiency and marital status, were dramatically interwoven with and effective to speech act and honorific addressee. Statisticallyexpressed, after running t-test on data, the results revealed that there was observed a significant difference(P =0.000) between the attitudes of the two groups of learners, i.e., attitudes of learning English language triggers them to employ appropriate speech act and addressee terms. The implications of the study lend some rich tinges of pedagogical support to further exploration of the speech-act relevant competence in a vast variety of EFL/ESL context impressed implicitly by idiosyncratic qualities of the interlocutors so as to raise the awareness of the educators and EFL/ESL researchers to this phenomenon.{/sliders}
  2. {slider The Relationship between Perfectionism and Listening Comprehension among EFL Students of Kerman University. Abbas Moradan, Ehsan Kazemian and Zahra Niroo|closed}The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between perfectionism and listening comprehension among EFL students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Gender was taken into account, regarding males and females use of perfectionism.97 Iranian EFL students studying at Shahid Bahonar and Islamic Azad universities of Kerman took part in this study. The students were junior and senior students majoring in English Translation and English Literature. To achieve the required data the following scales were capitalized on: Frost et al. (1990) Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and a 50-item listening test taken from Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test. The findings revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between MPS and LC. Furthermore, it was revealed that female subjects were more perfectionist than their counterparts. In sum, MPS yielded a negative relationship with LC with the female subjects being more perfectionists.{/sliders}
  3. {slider Iranian Language Instructors’ Perceptions of Speaking Assessment. Shahin Vandchali and Shahin Sheikh S.T.|closed}This study aimed to investigate Iranian language instructors’ perceptions of speaking assessment. For this reason, 39 EFL experienced instructors were selected across a wide range of Iranian teaching contexts. They listened to two different learners’ speaking performances in KET and IELTS and made their comments and explained the reasons for the assessment of learners’ performances. A reflection sheet was used to collect each participant’s comments on the learners’ performances. Two coders read, analyzed, and then categorized the qualitative data of reflection sheets into nine criteria by coding into an Excel worksheet. An inter-rater reliability analysis using the Cohen’s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency of decisions among coders. Multivariate extension of McNemar indicated that there was a significant difference in instructors’ perceptions of assessment of two different speaking tasks. Moreover, findings revealed that pronunciation and content richness respectively were the most and least important criteria of speaking assessment. The results of the study have some practical implications and suggestions for further research.{/sliders}
  4. {slider The Viability of M-learning via SMS in Vocabulary perception of Iranian EFL learners. Fateme Alipanahi, Saeied Moharrami Qeydari and Vali Qadiri|closed}There is growing increase in the use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers and mobile phones are revolutionizing education, and transforming the traditional classroom-based learning, and teaching into anytime and anywhere education. The ready availability and uptake of devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants and SMS, have permeated the manner and means of human Communication, socializing and entertainment on a large scale. This paper investigates the use of M- learning with particular reference to the potential of learning new English language words using Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. The system was investigated recruiting 66 males and female students of an institute in Khodabandeh. The vocabulary perceptions of students before and after the experiment regarding the primacy and recency effects were measured. It was found out that using SMS as an educational tool noticeably contributes to the success of students.{/sliders}
  5. {slider Using Inductive and Deductive Consciousness Raising Tasks to Improve Field-Dependent and Field-Independent EFL Learners’ Grammar. Hamid Marashi and Samaneh Kordbacheh|closed}The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two different types of consciousness-raising (C-R) tasks, namely inductive and deductive, on the grammar achievement of field-dependent and field-independent EFL learners. To this aim, 120 female EFL learners were selected from among a total number of 220 based on their performance on a sample Nelson Language Proficiency Test and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and were randomly put into two groups, 60 field-dependents and 60 field-independents. Each group was divided again into two subgroups to undergo the two types of C-R tasks. All in all, there were four groups: 30 field-dependents and 30 field-independents undergoing the inductive C-R task treatment, and 30 field-dependents and 30 field-independents experiencing the deductive C-R task treatment. A grammar test was administered as the posttest of the study to all the groups once the treatment for 21 sessions was over. A two-way ANOVA was run to test all the four hypotheses raised in the study. The findings revealed that field-independents outperformed field- dependents in both settings of inductive and deductive C-R tasks while the kind of instruction was not a significant factor.{/sliders}
  6. {slider The Role of Gambits in Promoting Iranian EFL Learners’ Spoken Fluency. Amir Nikmehr and Farahman Farrokhi|closed}An objective for a language learner is to have the ability to start, maintain, and end a conversation. It is here that Communication Strategies (CSs) come to light. It seems that gambits would have quite a say in this matter, one that cannot be simply overlooked. Bearing this in mind, this study opted to find out whether gambits would promote spoken fluency in Iranian EFL learners or not. To this end, this study employed a mixed methods design in which four participants under observation for approximately two years were investigated. Participants A and B observed teacher modeling while the other two (C & D) were engaged in discovery tasks by means of movie retelling. Every five sessions their performances (that is, A & B on an IELTS speaking prompt and C & D on a 10 minute movie retelling task) were recorded and analyzed in terms of fluency and gambit use. Pearson’s correlation indicated a very high correlation between gambit use and fluency and that engaging learners in discovery tasks yielded the best results towards improving oral fluency.{/sliders}
  7. {slider A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Europe`s Economic Crisis in the European and British Print Media Discourse. Biook Behnam and Mehrdad Rezaeian|closed}Looking at the print media of UK and Europe about the economic crisis, the present study aims to find out how the writers of the print media in UK and Europe use discourse tools to convey their ideas. In a comparative study of the two media with a focus on such grammatical tools like passivisation, nominalisation, thematisation, and word choice strategies, it was found out that the UK media exaggerate the problem while the European media depict a positive picture of the same crisis.{/sliders}
  8. {slider Sources of Persian Learners’ Errors in English Pronunciation. Seyyed Mohammad Reza Amirian and Fatemeh Sadeghi|closed}When a Persian student wants to learn English, he or she may have many difficulties in pronunciation. This study aims to investigate different sources of Persian students’ difficulties in pronouncing English words. The results indicated that three major sources of pronunciation errors can be enumerated: the different sound system of English and Persian, the orthography of English, and the effect of the native language or transfer. These different types of pronunciation errors, based on the researcher observation in her English classes in different high schools in Sabzevar, Iran, have been explained. In addition, as a second objective, this study tries to compare segment insertion rules in English and Persian. It is concluded that if an English teacher knows some of the phonological rules of English and can compare them to Persian rules, he or she can raise student’s awareness of the differences and help them to overcome these barriers to correct pronunciation.{/sliders}
  9. {slider On the Relationship between the Age of Start of English Education in Iranian Schools and the Students’ English Achievement. Gholam Reza Kiany and Kolsoum Salarvand|closed}This article investigates the effects of age of start of English education on students’ English achievement. A total of 221 primary and junior high school students including 125 third-grade, fourth-grade, and fifth-grade primary school, and 96 third-grade junior high school students participated in this study. All the participants were boys, and their age range was between 9 to 14 years. An ex post facto design was used. Two researcher-made English Achievement Tests, one for the third-grade, fourth-grade and fifth-grade primary school and the other one for the third-grade junior high school students, were used. Besides, teacher-made and centralized English Achievement Test scores of the third-grade junior high school students were collected from their schools. As the results showed, third-grade junior high school participants who started learning English from the primary school outperformed those of others who started from the junior high school in terms of English Achievement Test. Implications include comparative studies of English education and allocating sufficient funding to incorporate English program into primary school.{/sliders}
  10. {slider Dynamic Assessment of Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Ability. Morteza Amirsheibani, Mohamad Sadegh Tamri and Sajad Yaseri Moghadam|closed}Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been derived from the concept of development in Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The central feature of DA is that it does not separate instruction from assessment; on the contrary, it is in favor of a teacher-learner unity that works jointly towards learners’ future progress through their ZPD. This study introduces DA and suggests a simple framework for English writing instruction based on the principles of DA. This study determines the effect of DA on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. To this end, after conducting the Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 32 intermediate EFL learners were selected. They were randomly assigned to one of the two groups, one treatment and one control. The treatment group received the intervention through the graduated prompt, one of the techniques of DA, during writing and the control group was assessed in a static way. The results showed that the treatment group significantly outperformed the control group on the writing test. The beneficial effect of DA on EFL writing ability can have useful implications for EFL learners, teachers and designers.{/sliders}
  11. {slider Interpretive Methodology from Literary Criticism: Carnivalesque Analysis of “Young Good Man Brown”. Masoumeh Sohrabi and Masoumeh Khalkhali Rad|closed}The subversion of religious hierarchies turns Nathaniel Hawthorn’s outstanding short story “Young Good man Brown” into an example of Bakhtinian Carnival. Bakhtin’s definition of the carnival as an arena where social decorum is rejected and violated and scandalous behavior is overlooked, providing release from oppressive etiquette. The present study offers a survey of religious hierarchy as concerning man’s faith. Highlighting the theory of the carnivalesque ,as an utopian world of renewal, which in in direct association with a social institution and up/ down motifs.{/sliders}
  12. {slider Advent of Proficiency Test in High School Sentence Structure Tests. Leila Sayah and Behzad Ghonsooly|closed}The growing global concern over developing, classifying and administrating language proficiency tests in different countries has been the recent main focus of test constructivists and policy makers. Although English proficiency tests are practiced across different countries, the local language standardized tests were mostly neglected and even belittled in the current literature. Since decisions on including proficiency tests in high school exit exams have been analyzed by few researchers, this study attempted to determine the proficiency validation of the new test design in Persian high school sentence structure tests. In an attempt to highlight the universal application of Persian language proficiency tests, 90 high schools Persian Language tests were analyzed using Ghonsooly’s (2011) language proficiency test design. The result revealed the significant difference in compound, compound derivation, depending late and simple nouns of English proficiency test and senior high school grade all three grade sentence structural tests. The final goal was to maintain an overall Persian structure including proficiency tests in high schools as well as including it in global Persian literature tests.{/sliders}
  13. {slider The Differential Effects of Implicit and Explicit Feedback on the Grammatical Accuracy of Male EFL Learners’ Writing. Ahmad Farahmand and Asghar Hatami|closed}This study is an attempt to investigate whether explicit or implicit feedback on the use of simple past tense results in greater accuracy on EFL students’ writing.It was hypothesized that there is not any significant difference between explicit and implicit feedback and ultimateachievement in learning English as a foreign language.About 70 high school grade three learners were assigned to an implicit and implicit group (35 in each). Through T-test, groups were formed to be homogeneous since there was no significant difference between the performances of them. Treatment sessions began from the second week in which students were encountered with two kinds of feedback. All erroneous verbs of the explicit group were corrected by the teacher, but those of implicit one were implied by codes. After the treatment sessions a posttest and two weeks later a delayed posttest were administered to examine the efficacy of the treatment. The descriptive statistics from the three testing times showed that the mean accuracy scores increased substantially from time 1 to time 2 (i.e., from pre-test to post-test), only there was a very small negative effect for feedback on the delayed post-test. However, it should be noted that this effect size was not substantial enough to rebut this interpretation. Meanwhile Corrective feedback caused drastic improvement in accuracy levels of learners in the short run.{/sliders}
  14. {slider Investigating four aspects of the Muqatta’at letters translation. Sima Ferdowsi, Samira Heydari and Effat Soltani|closed}A translator, who attempts to translate the great the Holy Quran, may encounter some parts which cause obstacle in translation process. The Muqatta’at letters are among these parts, whose real and certain meaning is hidden even now. However the translator has to transfer them and while trying, he/she considers different points. This paper set out to examine four different dimensions in these letters’ translation. For so, first the Muqatta’at letters were identified. Then three of the best the Holy Quran translations, done by Pickthall (1930), Saffarzade (2001) and UsufAli (1934) and also the most complete present exegesis of the Muqatta’at by Max.Q (2008) were recognized and gathered and the proposed equivalences for the Muqatta’at were marked. Then dynamic and formal equivalence theory of Nida (1964a) and narrative theory of Baker (2010) were applied on their translations. Moreover, the employed translation strategies and whether considering them as Muhkamat or Mutashabihat were investigated. The analysis demonstrated that formal translation was the most common translation and footnote was the most common strategy. The Muqatta’at were mostly considered as Mutashabihat. Also public and disciplinary narrative, were the most applicable ones. Personal narrative had the third level and meta narrative was the last acceptable one.{/sliders}
  15. {slider “Absolute Zero”: Tramps in Paul Auster’s The New York Trilogy, Moon Palace and Timbuktu. Jalal Sokhanvar and Nahid Fakhrshafaie|closed}This article explores the tramp which is a recurring figure in Paul Auster’s novels. In The New York Trilogy, Moon Palace and Timbuktu, an ordinary citizen gradually loses connection with the society, deteriorates mentally and physically and turns into a tramp. In The New York Trilogy, Quinn, Blue and the narrator of the last part of the trilogy experience a crisis in their identities through doublings, merging of identities or disappearances before becoming tramps. In Moon Palace,Fogg gradually turns himself into an “absolute zero” by withdrawing from the society, practicing hunger and experiencing hallucinations. Willy, the schizoid poet in Timbaktuwho cannot distinguish between reality and dream also lives and dies as a tramp. In these novels, the characters disappear, are mistaken for their doublings, experience hallucinations, and become victims of chance and coincidence. These texts fail to show the negative aspects of the lives of tramps, valorizingtheir lack of identity and their passive attitude towards life.Omission of the frustration, aimlessness and hardships that characterize the lives of the tramps and naturalization of their passivity and submission make Auster’s fictional universe a reactionary one.{/sliders}
  16. {slider The Effect of Translator’s Content Knowledge on Translating Texts in the Field of Management. Ayda Ferdossifard|closed}Translation as one the most important means of international communication has always been in the center of attraction. Many scholars have tried to illuminate the differences and difficulties of translation through presenting different theories, translation methods and evaluation criteria. Translation of technical texts has also had an important place among translators. What counts in translation of technical and non-technical texts was discussed in this research through the comparison of the translation of one technical text (in the field of management) by graduated students who were familiar with the subject and graduated students of translation. The technical text was analyzed to discover whether the technical content knowledge of the translators affect the translators’ ability of translation. The comparison model was based on Farahzad’s pattern (1992). The statistical measures were calculated using SPSS.{/sliders}
  17. {slider The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Multiple Intelligences and their Writing Performance. Mahnaz Saeidi, Helen Alizadeh and Nasrin Hadidi Tamjid|closed}Gardner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT) has rapidly found its way into school curricula in educational systems across United States and other countries (Christine, 2003).Nowadays writing is one of the main ways by which people communicate. But, less research has been reported in the literature to explore the relation between Multiple Intelligences and writing performance. Thus, this study aimed at investigating a possible relationship between male Iranian EFL learners’ Multiple Intelligences and their writing performance. To conduct this study, 15 male participants from a reputable institute in Tabriz participated. They passed through a placement test to enter the course, yet, the researchers administered a Preliminary English Test (PET) to ensure the homogeneity of the group. Later, Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire was administered. Next, the learners were asked to read and write summaries of the given text. The written texts were analyzed for general writing ability utilizing Jacobs et al.’s (1981) writing scale. The results for correlational analysis revealed a positive relationship between Kinesthetic Intelligence and general writing ability of the participants in the study.The findings suggest English teachers to consider the role of multiple intelligences in learning and teaching process and provide more effective activities to help learners of different intelligences improve their second language writing skill. The pedagogical implications of the study for language teaching and teaching writing have been discussed.{/sliders}
  18. {slider Need Analysis: On the Academic Writing Needs of Master’s Graduate Students of Applied Linguistics: Instructors’ Perception, Students’ View, and current Pedagogical Practices. Fateme Chahkandi|closed}This paper seeks to explore the writing needs of master’s graduate students of applied linguistics. 16 master’s degree holders and PhD students and 8 master’s students were interviewed for identification of target and present writing needs and the content of questionnaire was complied out of their responses. Next, 211 master’s students and 10 instructors filled the questionnaires out to rate the importance of each writing item and students’ current ability on them. Analysis of results indicated that instructors’ and students’ perceptions regarding important tasks were similar and included theses and term papers, articles, proposals, genre knowledge of different parts of theses, and making articles out of theses. Moreover, they held similar views about the areas in need of training and preparation. A discrepancy, however, emerged between what teachers believed to be important students’ needs and their common practice in writing courses. The implications were then discussed for instructors, students, and syllabus designers.{/sliders}
  19. {slider The Acquisition of Relative Clause Constructions by Persian Native Speakers of English (L2) and French (L3). Najmeh Dehghani and Ali Akbar Jabbari|closed}Recent decade has been prominent in investigating third language acquisition (L3). Studies on the acquisition of a third language (L3) have shown that literacy in two background languages facilitates the acquisition of a third language (Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Swain, Lapkin, Rowen, & Hart, 1990). The present study contributes to the investigation of the relative clauses on the basis of three prominent transfer hypotheses of third language acquisition concerning L1 transfer hypothesis, i.e., Full Transfer/Full Access (Håkansson et al. 2002), L2 transfer Hypothesis, i.e., L2 status factor (Bardel & Falk 2007, 2010; Rothman & Cabrelli Amaro, 2010), and both positive transfer of L1 and L2, i.e., Cumulative Enhancement Model Hypothesis (Flynn et al., 2004). Data have been obtained from 40 Persian learners of English (L2) and French (L3) comprising two groups of lower-intermediate and upper-intermediate French proficiency level. Two tasks were conducted, one on the grammatically judgment/correction task (GJCT), and the other on the translation test. The results showed that in the L3 acquisition, L2 transfer played a significant role.{/sliders}
  20. {slider The Role of L1 in Online L2 Dynamic Assessment Mediation. Saman Ebadi and Abdulbaset Saeedian|closed}Theoretically framed within Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of mind (SCT), dynamic assessment (DA) is a new approach to classroom assessment offering mediation in the form of leading questions and prompts to help learners perform beyond their level of independent functioning. This study investigated the role of learners’ L1 as a primary symbolic tool mediating L2 processing and development in online DA mediation from a sociocultural perspective.The typology of L1 use emerged out of thematic analysis as the general framework for data analysisin mediation between the mediator and two university studentsin the collaborative Web-based DA. The results of the study highlighted the importance of L1 as a social and psychological mediating tool used by the learners and the mediator to bring about L2 cognitive development.{/sliders}
  21. {slider Self-Efficacy, Stressors and Burnout among Iranian EFL Teachers in Private Language Institutes. Nasser Fallah, Saeed Khojasteh Nam and Roya Movahed|closed}This study aimed at investigating the role of self-efficacy in burnout, the effects of job stressors on burnout and the moderator role of self-efficacy in the stressor– burnout relationship in a sample of 247 Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the stressors had significant positive effects on burnout dimensions. Further, it was shown that, apart from being a potent predictor of burnout dimensions, teacher self-efficacy had significant moderating effects on the stressors-burnout bond, depending on the different dimensions of self-efficacy and burnout and the kinds of stressors under study. Implications are discussed.{/sliders}
  22. {slider Commands among English Speakers and Iranian speakers. Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh and Marziyeh Rabieefar|closed}This article aimed at investigating commands in English and Persian languages. The research is done by studying samples of speeches having commands, produced by adult English native speakers and adult Persian speakers. Finding similarities and differences of this speech act in English and Persian was sought comparing the produced samples. To do the reasearch, a DCT consisting of 20 different situations was distributed among 30 participants in Iran and its English version was sent to 30 participants in the United States. Data were analyzed by employing percentage and chi-square. The results revealed both similarities and differences in using commands. Differences appeared to be due to cultural differences of the two communities.{/sliders}
  23. {slider Power of Color in Toni Morrison’s Sula A Foucauldian Perspective. Nasser Motalebzadeh and Afsaneh Hezarjaribi Ghassab|closed}This essay aims to scrutinize one of Toni Morrison’s works, Sula with the help of Foucault’s thoughts. Foucault’s view of power is directly shown in this novel. Morrison points out how the total of the black society is surrendered to racist authority. Morrison and Foucault clarify the sample of subjectivity in contemporary societies. Morrison applies the description of power in African society particularly in Sula. Beauliu (2003) believes that ”Morrison shows the development of African American community within a society that places the economic and cultural conditions under white supremacist control” (p.377). Power is generally explained as the facility to force one’s will on others, although they stand firm in one way. This Morrison’s novel suggests us with an outstanding option to represent Foucault’s thoughts at work. Davis (1990) mentions, ” All of Morrison’s characters exist in a world defined by its blackness and by the surrounding white society that both violates and denies it” (p.217). A study in the light of Foucauldian theories, concerning panopticon, resistance and norm throughout the notion of power, could aid to show how power and color are mingled with one another in Sula.The primary purpose of this study is to illustrate how color affects the characters’ domination or marginalization in Toni Morrison’s Sula.{/sliders}
  24. {slider The Role of Cultural-Awareness in the Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Performance. Fereydoun Jafari Laasaki and Ahmad Morad Jokar|closed}The present study attempted to investigate the role of cultural-awareness on the Iranian EFL learners’ reading performance. For this purpose, 40 participants took two reading comprehension tests. Each of the tests was comprised of five texts, with ten multiple-choice comprehension questions following each text. In one test, the five texts were culture bound. In addition, in the other test, the texts were culture free. To explore the effect of cultural awareness (familiarity) on reading comprehension, the means of the participants’ scores on the two tests were compared using paired samples t-test. The result clearly illustrated that cultural-awareness had a facilitative effect on comprehension of the passages. The findings of the study bear implications for EFL teachers and material designers.{/sliders}
  25. {slider The Effect of Corrective Feedback on Writing’s Organization and Accuracy: A Comparison between Children and Teenagers. Mohammad Saber Khaghaninezhad and Saharsadat Hadigheh|closed}The present study was an attempt to examine the efficacy of providing corrective feedback on the organization and accuracy of writing. The primary focus was to investigate the role of age while the secondary target was to survey the possible effects of different levels of language proficiency as the relationship between providing corrective feedback and writing’s organization and accuracy was concerned. For this to achieve, 80 participants were randomly selected and categorized into two main groups of control and experimental. Each group included 40 students; intermediate and advanced, male and female English learners. After gaining certitude that participants of both groups were more or less at the similar level of writing proficiency through a writing pre-test, the study’s treatment initiated in the way that experimental participants experienced a set of productive tasks and were provided corrective feedback when needed, whereas control participants received only a mark on their papers. In order to scrutinize the efficacy of providing corrective feedback and to discover which age group (children or teenagers) and which proficiency level (advanced or intermediate) had a higher degree of betterment a set of independent samples t-tests were conducted. Predictably, it was revealed that the students of the experimental group outperformed remarkably than their peers in the control group on the final post-test. It was also found that age was not determining in writing development when corrective feedback was provided. However, level of language proficiency was shown to be an influential factor; advanced learners performed noticeably better than the intermediates in the experimental group.{/sliders}
  26. {slider The Philosophical Nuances of Existential Terminology as Used in Camus` L`Etranger and its English and Persian Translation. Amir Hossein Mirsalehian|closed}Existentialism is a philosophy which is concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through freedom, choice, and personal responsibility. The French novel L’Étranger by Camus is one of his several works in which this philosophy has been expressed through using a special set of terminology. In this research, an attempt has been made to analyze the English and Persian translations of this novel in terms of the extent to which the concepts of existentialism, the main philosophy of the novel, have been transferred to the target texts. In this process, the main words and expressions in the source text that express a theme of existentialism were compared with their English and Persian translations to see to what extent their philosophical concepts have been transferred to the translated texts. To do so, the key phrases and expressions that express a concept of existentialism were extracted from the original French text and the translation procedures by which they have been translated into English and Persian were analyzed. The present researcher concludes that the Persian translation is superior in expressing the existential concepts. The reason may be that the Persian translator, Golestan, has been more acquainted with the philosophy and also she translated the novel more semantically in comparison to Gilbert, the English translator.{/sliders}
  27. {slider The Role of Pre-Task Planning in the Complexity and Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners’ L2 Writing Performance in a TBLT Context. Seyed Hesamuddin Aliasin and Mahdi Noshadi|closed}The overarching goal of the present study was to explore the impact of pre-task planning on Iranian EFL learners’ overall writing skill as well as on two linguistic characteristics of written performance i.e. complexity and accuracy in a TBLT context. To this end, the researchers selected 60 Iranian Intermediate EFL learners aged between 17 and 24 and divided them into two almost equal groups (Experimental and Control). The instruments applied for data collection included: the Oxford Quick Placement Test, Brown’s (1991) categories for evaluating learners’ writing, and two genuine and validated TOEFL writing tests used as pre- and post-tests. The role of pre-task planning in overall writing skill as well as in the complexity and accuracy of the participants’ performances was examined using independent-samples t-test analyses. The results revealed that pre-task planning was significantly associated with the improvement of EFL learners’ overall writing skill and the complexity of their written performance while it played no significant role in the improvement of EFL learners’ accuracy of the written performance. The results may exhort language teachers, course designers, and writing curriculum and material developers to take into consideration the pre-task planning as a prelude to writing tasks of any kind.{/sliders}
  28. {slider A Genre Analysis on the Rhetorical Moves in Dentistry Research Abstracts by Iranian and English Native Speakers. Rozana Shamsabadi, Parisa Riahipour and Abbas Eslami Rasekh|closed}This article is an attempt to compare English dentistry researchabstracts (RAs) in an international medical journal and thosepublished in anIranian one. To do so, 50abstracts were randomly sampledfrom two well-known journals of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistryand Medical Council of Islamic Republic of Iran respectively and their rhetorical moves and linguistic features were analyzed. This genre analysis revealed some variations in linguistic features and rhetorical moves occurring in the abstracts published in the two journals{/sliders}
  29. {slider The Effect of Extroversion/Introversion and Textual Enhancement Technique on Grammar Learning of EFL Learners. Sedigheh Vahdat and Asieh Pasideh|closed}A glance at arguments laid against structural approaches to language teaching; like GTM and Audiolingualism, one can infer that teaching grammar explicitly has fallen out of favor because of its inadequacy in motivating the learners to internalize and apply grammatical rules in their communication. Therefore, focus on form was suggested by ELT practitioners (Long, 1991) in order to internalize grammar communicatively. Among the options through which focus on form can be accomplished is textual enhancement technique. This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of textual enhancement technique on internalizing grammar, and the role of extroversion/introversion in this effectiveness. The participants in this study were 60 female intermediate EFL learners at BushehrZaban Sara Institute. The instruments used in this study were: TOEFL actual test, Eysenk’s personality inventory and a grammatical achievement test, and the materials were: Top notch 2 and Iran Daily newspaper. The participants were divided into two classes randomly (class A and class B), both classes underwent formal instruction of grammar. However, class A internalized grammar through textual enhancement technique by highlighting the articles in front page of Iran Daily newspaper, and class B internalized grammar through usual exercises. Finally, the achievement test of grammar was administered to both classes. The data gathered from the achievement test was analyzed by an independent sample t-test. The results of the achievement test revealed that participants in class A outperformed those in class B. Furthermore, the results obtained from class A indicated that although both the introverts and extroverts benefited from this technique, however, the extroverts benefited more from it. The results derived from class B showed that usual exercises were more beneficial for the introverts in internalizing grammar.{/sliders}
  30. {slider Study of English and Persian Thought Patterns through Metadiscourse Strategies. Massood Yazdanimoghaddam and Mahboobe Salek|closed}It is now established that a significant part of the rhetorical structure of research articles, that is, the attempt to make it persuasive, is shaped by employing metadiscourse (Hyland, 2005a). These markers can help writers to negotiate with their readers and reflect themselves. To carry out a cross-language study, 26 English and Persian research articles as a corpus were selected. The author tried to compare metadiscourse (MD) markers used in different sections (i.e. abstract, introduction, review of the literature, method and results, discussion and conclusion) of three groups of articles consisting of native English (NE), native Persian (NP), and non-native English (NNE) research articles (written by Iranian academic writers) based on Hyland’s (2005a) taxonomy plus two MD strategies by Abdi et al. (2010). To find significant difference among the three subcorpora, this study enjoyed ANOVA tests. These tests showed that native English, native Persian, and non-native English (Iranian) academic writers performed differently by using different interactional MD markers in ‘introduction’ and ‘discussion and conclusion’ parts. It was further revealed that while English and Persian academic writers use the same amount of focus on their readers when they write in their native languages, Persian academics try to interact more with readers in their non-native English writing. This situation happened in ‘introduction’ and ‘discussion and conclusion’ parts of research articles. Generally, the most different parts, based on obvious thought patterns and strong interaction with readers, are ‘introduction’ and ‘discussion and conclusion’.{/sliders}

Category: 2014